El papel del consumo de energías renovables sobre los gases de efecto invernadero a nivel global: Análisis econométrico de datos de panel


  • Leidy Caraguay Carrera de Economía, Universidad Nacional de Loja, Loja, Ecuador
  • Michelle López-Sánchez Carrera de Economía, Universidad Nacional de Loja, Loja, Ecuador


El objetivo de este documento es analizar el impacto del consumo de energías renovablessobre los gases de efecto invernadero a nivel global durante el periodo 1990 – 2015. Paracomprobar dicha relación utilizamos la metodología de datos de panel y técnicas de cointegración.Los resultados confirman que el consumo de energía y las emisiones de gasesde efecto invernadero tienen una relación de equilibrio tanto en el corto como en el largoplazo, existiendo una relación negativa y significativa entre ambas variables, es decir, amayor consumo de energía los gases de efecto invernadero tienden a disminuir exceptuandolos países de ingresos extremadamente altos. Una implicación de política derivadade esta investigación es implementar políticas para reducir las emisiones de GEI, reemplazandolas fuentes de energía fósil con fuentes de energía renovable e incentivar al sectorpúblico y privado a invertir en la utilización de este tipo de energías limpias.


Ali, Y., Ciaschini, M., Socci, C., Pretaroli, R., & Severini, F. (2017). An analysis of CO2 emissions in Italy through the Macro Multiplier (MM) approach. Journal of Cleaner Production, 149, 238-250.

Ahiduzzaman, M., & Islam, A. S. (2011). Greenhouse gas emission and renewable energy sources for sustainable development in Bangladesh. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 15(9), 4659-4666.

Aized, T., Shahid, M., Bhatti, A. A., Saleem, M., & Anandarajah, G. (2018). Energy security and renewable energy policy analysis of Pakistan. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 84, 155-169.

Amponsah, N. Y., Troldborg, M., Kington, B., Aalders, I., & Hough, R. L. (2014). Greenhouse gas emissions from renewable energy sources: A review of lifecycle considerations. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 39, 461-475.

Anders, S., Kim, J. D., Silva-Send, N., Gordon, C., & Gu, Y. (2015). Splitting the Electric Emissions Baby: Allocating Greenhouse Gas Reductions between Efficiency and Renewable Energy Policies. The Electricity Journal, 28(8), 29-42.

Ang, J. B. (2007). CO2 emissions, energy consumption, and output in France. Energy Policy, 35(10), 4772-4778

Anders, S., Kim, J. D., Silva-Send, N., Gordon, C., & Gu, Y. (2015). Splitting the Electric Emissions Baby: Allocating Greenhouse Gas Reductions between Efficiency and Renewable Energy Policies. The Electricity Journal, 28(8), 29-42.

Apergis, N., Jebli, M. B., & Youssef, S. B. (2018). Does renewable energy consumption and health expenditures decrease carbon dioxide emissions? Evidence for sub-Saharan Africa countries. Renewable Energy, 127, 1011-1016.

Baah-Acheamfour, M., Carlyle, CN, Lim, SS, Bork, EW y Chang, SX (2016). Los tipos de cobertura forestal y de pastizales reducen las emisiones netas de gases de efecto invernadero de los suelos agrícolas. Ciencia del Medio Ambiente Total, 571 , 1115-1127.

Benedek, J., Sebestyén, T. T., & Bartók, B. (2018). Evaluation of renewable energy sources in peripheral areas and renewable energy-based rural development. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 90, 516-535.

Boontome, P., Therdyothin, A., & Chontanawat, J. (2017). Investigating the causal relationship between non-renewable and renewable energy consumption, CO 2 emissions and economic growth in Thailand. Energy Procedia, 138, 925-930.

Breitung, J. (2002). Nonparametric tests for unit roots and cointegración. Journal of Econometrics, 108(2), 343-363.

Cherni, A., & Jouini, S. E. (2017). An ARDL approach to the CO2 emissions, renewable energy and economic growth nexus: Tunisian evidence. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 42(48), 29056-29066.

Chuang, J., Lien, H. L., Den, W., Iskandar, L., & Liao, P. H. (2018). The Relationship Between Electricity Emission Factor and Renewable Energy Certificate: The Free Rider and Outsider Effect. Sustainable Environment Research.

Dickey, D., Fuller, W. A., 1981. Likelihood ratio statistics for autoregressive time series with a unit root. Econometrica, 49, 1057-1072.

Dong, K., Sun, R., & Hochman, G. (2017). Do natural gas and renewable energy consumption lead to less CO2 emission? Empirical evidence from a panel of BRICS countries. Energy, 141, 1466-1478.

Farhani, S., Chaibi, A., & Rault, C. (2014). CO 2 emissions, output, energy consumption, and trade in Tunisia. Economic Modelling, 38, 426-434.

Hausman, J. A. (1978). Specification tests in econometrics. Econometrica: Journal of the Econometric Society, 1251-1271.

Hosseinzadeh-Bandbafha, H., Nabavi-Pelesaraei, A., Khanali, M., Ghahderijani, M., & Chau, K. W. (2018). Application of data envelopment analysis approach for optimization of energy use and reduction of greenhouse gas emission in peanut production of Iran. Journal of Cleaner Production, 172, 1327-1335.

Im, K. S., Pesaran, M. H., & Shin, Y. (2003). Testing for unit roots in heterogeneous panels. Journal of Econometrics, 115(1), 53-74.

Ito, K. (2017). CO2 emissions, renewable and non-renewable energy consumption, and economic growth: Evidence from panel data for developing countries. International Economics, 151, 1-6.

Jebli, M. B., & Youssef, S. B. (2017). The role of renewable energy and agriculture in reducing CO2 emissions: Evidence for North Africa countries. Ecological indicators, 74, 295-301.

Jin, T., & Kim, J. (2018). What is better for mitigating carbon emissions–Renewable energy or nuclear energy? A panel data analysis. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 91, 464 471.

Juana de Sardón, J. M. (2003). Energías renovables para el desarrollo. Editorial Paraninfo.

Kais, S., & Sami, H. (2016). An econometric study of the impact of economic growth and energy use on carbon emissions: panel data evidence from fifty eight countries. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 59, 1101-1110.

Kasman, A., & Duman, Y. S. (2015). CO2 emissions, economic growth, energy consumption, trade and urbanization in new EU member and candidate countries: a panel data analysis. Economic Modelling, 44, 97-103.

Kim, J., Park, S. Y., & Lee, J. (2018). Do people really want renewable energy? Who wants renewable energy?: Discrete choice model of reference-dependent preference in South Korea. Energy Policy.

Kuznets, S. (1955). Economic growth and income inequality. The American economic review, 45(1), 1-28.

Khondaker, A. N., Hasan, M. A., Rahman, S. M., Malik, K., Shafiullah, M., & Muhyedeen, M. A. (2016). Greenhouse gas emissions from energy sector in the United Arab Emirates–An overview. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 59, 1317-1325.

Levin, A., Lin, C. F., & Chu, C. S. J. (2002). Unit root tests in panel data: asymptotic and finite sample properties. Journal of Econometrics, 108(1), 1-24.

Li, K., & Lin, B. (2015). Impacts of urbanization and industrialization on energy consumption/CO 2 emissions: Does the level of development matter? Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 52, 1107-1122.

Liobikienė, G., & Butkus, M. (2017). Environmental Kuznets Curve of greenhouse gas emissions including technological progress and substitution effects. Energy, 135, 237-248

Mittal, S., Dai, H., Fujimori, S., & Masui, T. (2016). Bridging greenhouse gas emissions and renewable energy deployment target: comparative assessment of China and India. Applied energy, 166, 301-313.

Mirza, F. M., & Kanwal, A. (2017). Energy consumption, carbon emissions and economic growth in Pakistan: Dynamic causality analysis. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 72, 1233

Mohlin, K., Camuzeaux, J. R., Muller, A., Schneider, M., & Wagner, G. (2018). Factoring in the forgotten role of renewables in CO 2 emission trends using decomposition analysis. Energy Policy, 116, 290-296.

Moreno, J. R., Ortiz, J. D. C., de Vega, R. G., & Caro, G. V. (2006, September). Estimación de la emisión de contaminantes debida al tráfico urbano mediante modelos de asignación de tráfico. In X Congreso de Ingeniería de Organización.

Moutinho, V., & Robaina, M. (2016). Is the share of renewable energy sources determining the CO2 kWh and income relation in electricity generation? Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 65, 902-914.

Nikzad, R., & Sedigh, G. (2017). Greenhouse gas emissions and green technologies in Canada. Environmental Development, 24, 99-108.

Nordenstam, L., Ilic, D. D., & Ödlund, L. (2018). Corporate greenhouse gas inventories, guarantees of origin and combined heat and power production–Analysis of impacts on total carbon dioxide emissions. Journal of Cleaner Production, 186, 203-214.

Oehmichen, K., & Thrän, D. (2017). Fostering renewable energy provision from manure in Germany Where to implement GHG emission reduction incentives. Energy Policy, 110, 471-477.

World Meteorological Organization. (2018). Greenhouse Gas Bulletin (GHG Bulletin) - No.14: The State of Greenhouse Gases in the Atmosphere Based on Global Observations through 2017.

Pao, H. T., & Tsai, C. M. (2011). Multivariate Granger causality between CO2 emissions, Energy consumption, FDI (foreign direct investment) and GDP (gross domestic product): evidence from a panel of BRIC (Brazil, Russian Federation, India, and China) countries. Energy, 36(1), 685-693.

Paramati, S. R., Mo, D., & Gupta, R. (2017). The effects of stock market growth and renewable energy use on CO2 emissions: evidence from G20 countries. Energy Economics, 66, 360 371.

Park, J., & Hong, T. (2013). Analysis of South Korea’s economic growth, carbon dioxide emission, and energy consumption using the Markov switching model. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 18, 543-551.

Pata, U. K. (2018). Renewable energy consumption, urbanization, financial development, income and CO2 emissions in Turkey: Testing EKC hypothesis with structural breaks. Journal of Cleaner Production, 187, 770-779.

Pedroni, P. (1999). Critical values for cointegration tests in heterogeneous panels with multiple regressors. Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, 61(S1), 653-670.

Pedroni, P. (2001). Purchasing power parity tests in cointegrated panels. Review of Economics and Statistics, 83(4), 727-731.

Phillips, P., Perron, P. (1988). Testing for a unit root in time series regression. Biometrica, 75, 335 346.

Poumanyvong, P., & Kaneko, S. (2010). Does urbanization lead to less energy use and lower CO2 emissions? A cross-country analysis. Ecological Economics, 70(2), 434-444.

Saboori, B., & Sulaiman, J. (2013). Environmental degradation, economic growth and energy consumption: Evidence of the environmental Kuznets curve in Malaysia. Energy Policy, 60, 892-90.

Saboori, B., & Sulaiman, J. (2013). CO2 emissions, energy consumption and economic growth in Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries: a cointegration approach. Energy, 55, 813-822.

Salahuddin, M., & Gow, J. (2014). Economic growth, energy consumption and CO 2 emissions in Gulf Cooperation Council countries. Energy, 73, 44-58.

Sarango, D. (2018). Análisis de la relación entre el consumo de energía y las emisiones de carbono en Ecuador. Revista Vista Económica, 35-48.

Şener, Ş. E. C., Sharp, J. L., & Anctil, A. (2017). Factors impacting diverging paths of renewable energy: A review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews.

Soytas, U., & Sari, R. (2007). The relationship between energy and production: evidence from Turkish manufacturing industry. Energy Economics, 29(6), 1151-1165.

Shahsavari, A., & Akbari, M. (2018). Potential of solar energy in developing countries for reducing energy-related emissions. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 90, 275-291.

Thitanuwat, B., Polprasert, C., & Englande Jr, A. J. (2017). Green residues from Bangkok green space for renewable energy recovery, phosphorus recycling and greenhouse gases emission reduction. Waste management, 61, 572-581.

Tillaguango, B., & Loaiza, V. (2019). Efecto causal de la energía sustentable y no sustentable en el crecimiento económico: nueva evidencia empírica global por grupos de países. Revista Vista Económica, 6(1), 37-48.

Waheed, R., Chang, D., Sarwar, S., & Chen, W. (2018). Forest, agriculture, renewable energy, and CO2 emission. Journal of Cleaner Production, 172, 4231-4238.

Westerlund, J. (2007). Testing for error correction in panel data. Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, 69(6), 709-748.

World Bank, 2018. World Development Indicators. Washington D.C. Available on: https://data.worldbank.org/data-catalog/world-development-indicators.

Xiangzhao, F., & Ji, Z. (2008). Economic analysis of CO2 emission trends in China. China Population, Resources and Environment, 18(3), 43-47.

Zoundi, Z. (2017). CO2 emissions, renewable energy and the Environmental Kuznets Curve, a panel cointegration approach. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 72, 1067-1075.