Actividad antimicrobiana de extractos de Plumbago scandens L. (Yerba de la culebra)

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Luis Alberto Morocho-Yaguana
Grace del Pilar Cambizaca-Mora
Jackson Salazar-Briceño

Resumen

El presente estudio se propuso evaluar la actividad antimicrobiana de los extractos hexánico, etanólico y acuoso de la parte aérea y raíz de Plumbago scandens L. (Plumbaginaceae), planta referida por conocedores populares y sanadores para el tratamiento de diferentes afecciones, particularmente de la piel. Los extractos se obtuvieron secuencialmente de la misma matriz constituida de hojas, raíz y tallos secos pulverizados; los extractos se concentraron a presión reducida a 30, 45 y 55 ºC respetivamente, se liofilizaron y conservaron en refrigeración. La actividad antimicrobiana se evaluó con 10 cepas de microorganismos de la American Type Culture Collection por el método de difusión de Kirby-Bauer modificado en agar Muller Hinton, con discos de papel Whatman Nº 3, de 6 mm de diámetro, a una concentración de 1 mg de extracto por disco. Solo el extracto hexánico, a las concentraciones ensayadas, presentó actividad contra Bacillus subtilis subsp. Spizizenii, Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus subsp. Aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes y Proteus  vulgaris Hauser emend y fue negativa para Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa y Salmonella entérica Typhimurium. Los resultados confirman un amplio espectro de actividad antimicrobiana del extracto hexánico, tanto contra microorganismos Gram positivos y negativos y sobre una levadura, siendo especialmente significativa su actividad contra Bacillus subtilis subsp. Spizizenii, Streptococcus pyogenes y Staphylococcus aureus.

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