Consumo de energía, crecimiento económico y urbanización: Evidencia empírica para grupos de países con diferentes niveles de ingreso

Autores/as

  • Sharon Macas Universidad Nacional de Loja
  • Roberto Erazo Universidad Nacional de Loja

Palabras clave:

Consumo de energía, Crecimiento Económico, Urbanización

Resumen

El objetivo de esta investigación es determinar la relación entre el consumo de energía, el PIB per cápita y la urbanización. Los países fueron clasificados de acuerdo al nivel de ingreso nacional bruto per cápita para capturar las diferencias entre países. Utilizamos técnicas de cointegración de Pedroni (1999) y de corrección de error de Westerlund (2007) y de causalidad Dumitrescu & Hurlin (2012) para evaluar la relación entre las variables. Con el fin de evaluar la fuerza del vector de cointegración de corto y largo plazo, aplicamos el método de mínimos cuadrados ordinarios de panel dinámico para los países en forma individual y el modelo de mínimos cuadrados ordinarios dinámicos para los grupos de países. Los resultados demuestran la relación de equilibrio de largo y corto plazo entre el consumo de energía, el PIB per cápita y la urbanización. En la estimación de la fuerza del vector determinamos que, en los grupos de países por ingresos altos, por ingresos medios bajos y por ingresos extremadamente bajos, el consumo de energía de los hogares depende altamente de la variable PIB per cápita. Por otro lado, se determinó que en los grupos de países por ingresos medios altos, por ingresos medios bajos y por ingresos bajos, el consumo de energía de los hogares depende altamente de la urbanización. Finalmente, determinamos la existencia de causalidad bidireccional tanto para el consumo de energía y el producto interno bruto per cápita, como para el consumo de energía y la urbanización.

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Publicado

2020-07-16